Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 5, 2018

Registration No. 333-


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM S-3

Registration Statement Under The Securities Act of 1933

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Remark Holdings, Inc.

Delaware
 
4899
 
33-1135689
State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization
 
Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number
 
I.R.S. Employer Identification Number
 
 
3960 Howard Hughes Parkway
Suite 900
Las Vegas, NV 89169
702-701-9514
 
 
 
 
Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code,
of Registrant’s principal executive offices
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
With a copy to:
Robert H. Friedman, Esq.
Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP
1325 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019
Telephone: (212) 451-2300
Facsimile: (212) 451-2222

 
 
 
 
(Name, Address Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 
 

Approximate Date of Commencement of Proposed Sale to the Public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.   
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered 1
 
Amount to be Registered 1
 
Proposed Maximum Offering Price 2
 
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price 2
 
Amount of Registration Fee 3
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share
 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share
 

 

 

 

Warrants
 

 

 

 

Debt Securities
 

 

 

 

Units
 

 

 

 

TOTAL
 

 

 
$
50,000,000

 
$
6,225


(1) 
Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. There is being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate number of warrants and units and such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may from time to time be issued at currently indeterminate prices and as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.

(2) 
The proposed maximum offering price for securities registered hereunder will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder.

(3) 
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933 based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities registered hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act of 1933, filing fees of $2,933.35 paid with respect to unsold securities registered pursuant to a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (No. 333-202024) filed by Remark Holdings, Inc. on February 11, 2015 have been carried forward to offset a portion of the filing fee for this offering.


The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine. 







The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 5, 2018

PROSPECTUS

$50,000,000


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Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Debt Securities
Units
___________________________

We may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus having an aggregate initial offering price of up to $50,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer and sell. We will provide specific terms of any offering in a supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus, carefully before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.
These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters or dealers or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities and their compensation and the nature of our arrangements with them will be described in a prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “MARK.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market on June 1, 2018 was $4.55 per share.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement relating to the offered securities.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus before investing in our securities.
___________________________





Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is _______________, 2018
 




TABLE OF CONTENTS



ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a maximum aggregate initial offering price of $50,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with general information regarding the securities we may offer. We will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about any offering by us. The prospectus supplement also may add, update, or change information contained in the prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the prospectus supplement related to any offering, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Information Incorporated by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date indicated on their respective cover pages, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or of any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
As used in this prospectus, references to “Remark Holdings,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Remark Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries.



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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before determining whether to invest in our securities. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the information included in the “Risk Factors” section, as well as our consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before making an investment decision.


Overview

Remark Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries (“Remark”, “we”, “us”, or “our”), which include its consolidated variable-interest entities (VIEs), are primarily technology-focused. Our KanKan social media data intelligence platform serves as the basis for our development and deployment of artificial-intelligence-based solutions for businesses in many industries and geographies. We also own and operate digital media properties across multiple verticals, such as travel and entertainment and young adult lifestyle, that deliver relevant, dynamic content that attracts and engages users on a global scale.
We were originally incorporated in Delaware in March 2006 as HSW International, Inc., we changed our name to Remark Media, Inc. in December 2011, and as our business continued to evolve, we changed our name to Remark Holdings, Inc. in April 2017.
Our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the ticker symbol MARK. Our website is www.remarkholdings.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus.


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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as those set forth in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as well as the other information set forth in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of may become important factors that affect us. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or operating results may suffer, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.


Risks Relating to Our Common Stock

Our stock price has fluctuated considerably and is likely to remain volatile, and various factors could negatively affect the market price or market for our common stock.

The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile. From January 1, 2016, through June 1, 2018, the high and low sales prices for our common stock were $15.10 and $1.93, respectively. The trading price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

general market and economic conditions;

the low trading volume and limited public market for our common stock;

minimal third-party research regarding our company; and

the current and anticipated future operating performance and equity valuation of Sharecare, in which we have a significant equity investment.


In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for Internet-related companies in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our stock, regardless of our operating performance.


The concentration of our stock ownership may limit individual stockholder ability to influence corporate matters.

As of June 1, 2018, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Kai-Shing Tao, may be deemed to beneficially own 10,200,634 shares, or 27.3% of our common stock, DRG Legacy, LP may be deemed to beneficially own 2,520,704 shares, or 7.6% of our common stock (based upon the most recent information available to us), and Ernest T. Lee may be deemed to beneficially own 2,193,336 shares, or 6.7% of our common stock. The interests of these stockholders may not always coincide with the interests of other stockholders, and they may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other stockholders, and might affect the prevailing market price for our securities.

If these stockholders act together, they may be able to exert significant control over our management and affairs requiring stockholder approval, including approval of significant corporate actions. Such concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock.



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Sales of our common stock to Aspire Capital may cause substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and the sale of the shares of common stock acquired by Aspire Capital could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

Pursuant to our public equity line with Aspire Capital, we issued 151,515 shares of our common stock and, upon the terms and subject to the conditions and limitations set forth therein, we may sell as much as an aggregate of $20 million of our common stock to Aspire Capital from time to time over the 30-month term of the Aspire Purchase Agreement, which expires May 9, 2019. The number of shares ultimately sold to Aspire Capital is dependent upon our election to sell to Aspire Capital under the Aspire Purchase Agreement. Depending on a variety of factors, including market liquidity of our common stock, the sale of shares under the Aspire Purchase Agreement may cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

After Aspire Capital has acquired shares under the Aspire Purchase Agreement, it may sell all, some or none of those shares. Sales to Aspire Capital pursuant to the Aspire Purchase Agreement may result in dilution to the interests of other holders of our common stock. The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock to Aspire Capital, or anticipation of such sales, could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline or make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise desire. However, we have the right under the Aspire Purchase Agreement to control the timing and amount of sales of our shares to Aspire Capital, and the Aspire Purchase Agreement may be terminated by us at any time at our discretion without any penalty or cost to us. As of June 1, 2018, we have sold 4,121,896 shares of common stock to Aspire Capital in exchange for $12.8 million pursuant to the Aspire Purchase Agreement.


A significant number of additional shares of our common stock may be issued under the terms of existing securities, which issuances would substantially dilute existing stockholders and may depress the market price of our common stock.

As of June 1, 2018, we had outstanding options to purchase approximately 10.8 million shares of common stock and warrants to purchase 4,001,774 shares of common stock. The number of outstanding warrants include certain of the warrants we issued in connection with our acquisition of assets of China Branding Group Limited and the financing related thereto (referred to herein as the CBG Acquisition Warrants and the CBG Financing Warrants, respectively) providing for the right to purchase 40,000 and 2,961,774 shares of common stock, respectively, at per-share exercise prices of $10.00 and $4.96, respectively, and it also includes additional unissued CBG Acquisition Warrants allowing for the purchase of 5,710,000 shares of common stock at a per-share exercise price of $10.00. The CBG Acquisition Warrants and the CBG Financing Warrants are exercisable on a cashless basis only. As a result of the cashless exercise requirement, neither the CBG Acquisition Warrants nor the CBG Financing Warrants can be exercised for the entire amount of shares purchasable under the warrants, and they effectively cannot be exercised to purchase shares of common stock unless the applicable market value of the common stock exceeds the applicable exercise price under the terms thereof.

Though the CBG Acquisition Warrants cannot be exercised unless the applicable market value of the common stock exceeds the applicable exercise price under the terms thereof, they also provide that if the closing price of our common stock does not exceed the sum of $10.00 per share plus the fair value of the CBG Acquisition Warrants at the time of issuance (the “Assumed Warrant Value”) for any 15 individual trading days in any consecutive 30-trading-day period between the closing date and September 20, 2020, we will issue on September 20, 2020, in exchange for the CBG Acquisition Warrants, such number of shares of common stock equal to (x) the number of shares issuable upon exercise of the CBG Acquisition Warrants, multiplied by (y) 50% of the Assumed Warrant Value, divided by (z) the volume weighted average price of our common stock during the 30 trading days ending on September 20, 2020.

The issuance of common stock pursuant to the warrants described above would substantially dilute the proportionate ownership and voting power of existing stockholders, and their issuance, or the possibility of their issuance, may depress the market price of our common stock.


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Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of Remark more difficult, which acquisition may be beneficial to stockholders.

Provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, as well as provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”), which may discourage, delay or prevent a merger with, acquisition of or other change in control of Remark, even if such a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders, include the following:

only our Board of Directors may call special meetings of our stockholders;

our stockholders may take action only at a meeting of our stockholders and not by written consent;

we have authorized, undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval.


Additionally, Section 203 of the DGCL prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. We have not opted out of the restriction under Section 203, as permitted under the DGCL.
 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus contains “forward-looking statements” about our plans, strategies, objectives, goals or expectations. You will find forward-looking statements principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary” and “Risk Factors”. These forward-looking statements are identifiable by words or phrases indicating that we or our management “expects,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “believes,” or “estimates,” or that a particular occurrence or event “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” or “will likely” result, occur or be pursued or “continue” in the future, that the “outlook” or “trend” is toward a particular result or occurrence, that a development is an “opportunity,” “priority,” “strategy,” “focus,” that we are “positioned” for a particular result, or similarly stated expectations. Undue reliance should not be placed on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus, other report, release, presentation, or statement.

In addition to other risks and uncertainties described in connection with the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and other periodic reports filed with the SEC, there are many important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially. Such risks and uncertainties include general business conditions, changes in overall economic conditions, our ability to integrate acquired assets, the impact of competition and other factors which are often beyond our control.
 
This should not be construed as a complete list of all of the economic, competitive, governmental, technological and other factors that could adversely affect our expected consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial also may impair our business, operations, liquidity, financial condition and prospects. We undertake no obligation to update or revise our forward-looking statements to reflect developments that occur or information that we obtain after the date of this prospectus.


USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as may be otherwise set forth in any prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus, we will use the net proceeds we receive from sales of securities offered hereby for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, acquisitions, repayment and refinancing of debt and capital expenditures. We will set forth

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in the applicable prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of the related securities. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of such proceeds. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities.


PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities described in this prospectus from time to time in one or more of the following ways:

through underwriters;

through dealers;

through agents;

directly to purchasers; or

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.


In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions. The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.


The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

the public offering or purchase price;

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;



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any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.


If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an "underwriter" as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.


Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.


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Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

To facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.


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The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.


DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, or Charter, authorizes us to issue up to 101,000,000 shares, including 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, of which 50,000 shares have been designated as shares of Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock. As of close of business on June 1, 2018, there were 32,955,549 shares of common stock issued and outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

The following descriptions are summaries of the material provisions and terms of our capital stock and are qualified by reference to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, or Charter, and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, or Bylaws.


Common Stock

Each share of common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders. Common stockholders are not entitled to cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors. Subject to the preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock may receive ratably any dividends that our Board of Directors (our “Board”) may declare out of funds legally available for that purpose. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. The common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.


Preferred Stock

Under our Charter, our Board is authorized generally without stockholder approval to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and, in connection with the creation of each such series, to fix the number of shares of such series and designate the powers, preferences and rights of such series, including dividend rights, redemption rights, liquidation preferences, sinking fund provisions, conversion rights and voting rights, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock.

We will fix the powers, preferences, rights and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. This description will include, as applicable:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares authorized;

the liquidation preference per share;

the purchase price;

the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;

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whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

preemptive rights, if any;

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.


If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.


Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock

On June 4, 2015, the Company designated 50,000 shares of preferred stock as Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock in connection with a Tax Benefit Preservation Plan (the “Plan”). The Plan expired in accordance with its terms on June 4, 2018.


Anti-Takeover Provisions


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Provisions in our Charter and Bylaws, as well as provisions of the DGCL, may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of Remark, even if such a change in control would be beneficial to stockholders. These provisions include the following:

only our Board may call special meetings of our stockholders;

our stockholders may take action only at a meeting of our stockholders and not by written consent;

we have authorized undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval.


Additionally, Section 203 of the DGCL prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. We have not opted out of the restriction under Section 203, as permitted under the DGCL.


Listing

Our common stock is currently quoted on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “MARK”. 


Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for the common stock is Computershare LLC.


DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock, preferred stock or of debt securities. Any of these warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and may be attached to or separate from those securities.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;


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in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;

the manner of exercise;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.


DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue the debt securities under an indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities specifying the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of the debt securities being offered.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.


General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

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We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We also may issue indexed debt securities. Payments of principal of, and premium and interest on, indexed debt securities are determined with reference to the rate of exchange between the currency or currency unit in which the debt security is denominated and any other currency or currency unit specified by us, to the relationship between two or more currencies or currency units or by other similar methods or formulas specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title of the series of debt securities;

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

the maturity date or dates;

the form of the debt securities of the series;

the applicability of any guarantees;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;


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the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.



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Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.


Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.


Events of Default

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.


If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.


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The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.


A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.


These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.


Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities-Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

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to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities-General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.


In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.


Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

provide for payment;

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

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hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.


To exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.


Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.


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Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.


Payment and Paying Agents


Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.


Global Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Global securities will be issued in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.


Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.


DESCRIPTION OF UNITS


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We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units, including the following:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.


The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Warrants,” and “Description of Debt Securities,” will apply to each unit and to any common stock, preferred stock, warrant or debt security included in each unit, respectively.


LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon by Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.


EXPERTS

Cherry Bekaert LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and for the years then ended, contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. These financial statements are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in this registration statement. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on their reports given upon their authority as experts in auditing and accounting.


INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3, including exhibits and schedules, under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of our common stock to be sold pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all the information contained in the registration statement. For additional information with respect to the Company and the shares that may be sold pursuant to this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules attached to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract, agreement or other document referred to are not necessarily complete. When we make such statements, we refer you to the copies of the contracts or documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement because those statements are qualified in all respects by reference to those exhibits.

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The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information contained in documents we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents already on file with the SEC that contain that information. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future information filed (rather than furnished) with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus, provided, however, that we are not incorporating any information furnished under any of Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K (and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items):
1.
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018;

2.
Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 14, 2018;

3.
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 24, 2018, May 2, 2018, May 18, 2018 and June 5, 2018; and

4.
The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (Registration No. 001-33720) filed with the SEC on October 3, 2007, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.


WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act. In accordance with the Exchange Act, we file periodic reports, proxy and information statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also request copies of such documents, upon payment of a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC at the same address. You may obtain further information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Our filings with the SEC are also available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You may also find documents we filed on our website at www.remarkholdings.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

Upon written or oral request, we will provide at no cost to the requester a copy of all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus. You may obtain copies of these documents from us, excluding the exhibits to such filings which we have not specifically incorporated by reference in such filings, at no cost, by requesting them in writing or by telephone at the following address:

Remark Holdings, Inc.
3960 Howard Hughes Parkway, Suite 900
Las Vegas, Nevada 89169
Attention: Chief Executive Officer
(702) 701-9514


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$50,000,000


http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12297647&doc=5

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Debt Securities
Units

 
PROSPECTUS
 

, 2018

 







PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the fees and expenses payable by the registrant in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee:
SEC registration fee
 
$
6,225

Legal fees and expenses
 
*

Accounting fees and expenses
 
*

Transfer agent fees and expenses
 
*

Printing expenses
 
*

Miscellaneous fees and expenses
 
*

Total
 
$
6,225


*
Information regarding offering expenses is not currently known. The foregoing sets forth the general categories of expenses (other than underwriting compensation) that we anticipate we will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement. An estimate of our expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Our Charter provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, our directors shall not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director. Each of our Charter and Bylaws also provide as follows:

(a)
The Company shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Company) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Company, or is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that the person’s conduct was unlawful.

(b)
The Company shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Company to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Company, or is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with


II - 1



the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Company unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

(c)
To the extent that a present or former director or officer of the Company has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in sections (a) and (b) above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith.

(d)
Any indemnification under sections (a) and (b) above (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Company only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because the person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in sections (a) and (b) above. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (iv) by the stockholders of the Company.


We have obtained liability insurance covering our directors and executive officers for claims asserted against them or incurred by them in such capacity.




II - 2



Item 16.
Exhibits.

 
 
 
 
Incorporated Herein
By Reference To
Exhibit Number
 
Description
 
Document
 
Filed On
 
Exhibit Number
1.1
 
Form of Underwriting Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
3.1
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
 
8-K
 
12/30/14
 
3.1
3.2
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
 
8-K
 
01/12/16
 
3.1
3.3
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
 
8-K
 
06/08/16
 
3.1
3.4
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
 
8-K
 
04/11/17
 
3.1
3.5
 
Certificate of Designation of Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock of Remark Media, Inc. (n/k/a Remark Holdings, Inc.)
 
8-K
 
06/04/15
 
3.1
3.6
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws
 
8-K
 
02/13/15
 
3.1
4.1
 
Form of specimen certificate of common stock of Remark Holdings, Inc.
 
10-K
 
03/23/12
 
4.1
4.2
 
Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.3
 
Form of Certificate for Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.4
 
Form of Warrant Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.5
 
Form of Warrant Certificate
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.6
 
Form of Indenture
 
 
 
 
 
X
4.7
 
Form of Debt Security
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.8
 
Form of Unit Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.9
 
Form of Unit Certificate
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
5.1
 
Opinion of Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP
 
 
 
 
 
X
23.1
 
Consent of Cherry Bekaert LLP
 
 
 
 
 
X
23.2
 
Consent of Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
 
 
 
 
 
X
24.1
 
Power of Attorney (included on the signature page hereto)
 
 
 
 
 
X
25.1
 
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
 
 
 
 
 
(1)

(1)
If applicable, to be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.




II - 3



Item 17.
Undertakings.

(a)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a


II - 4



time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(6)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

(h)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(i)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:

(1)    For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form


II - 5



of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.
(2)    For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(j)    The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.



II - 6



SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Las Vegas, State of Nevada, on the 5th day of June, 2018.

 
 
 
 
REMARK HOLDINGS, INC.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
 
/s/ Kai-Shing Tao
 
 
Name:
 
Kai-Shing Tao
 
 
Title:
 
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board


POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Kai-Shing Tao as his true and lawful attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments to this registration statement, and any registration statement and amendments thereto for the same offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact or his substitutes, each acting alone, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Name
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Kai-Shing Tao
 
 
 
 
Kai-Shing Tao
 
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman
(principal executive, financial and accounting officer)
 
June 5, 2018
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Theodore P. Botts
 
 
 
 
Theodore P. Botts
 
Director
 
June 5, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ William Grounds
 
 
 
 
William Grounds
 
Director
 
June 5, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Brett Ratner
 
 
 
 
Brett Ratner
 
Director
 
June 5, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Daniel Stein
 
 
 
 
Daniel Stein
 
Director
 
June 5, 2018


II - 7



EXHIBIT INDEX

 
 
 
 
Incorporated Herein
By Reference To
Exhibit Number
 
Description
 
Document
 
Filed On
 
Exhibit Number
1.1
 
Form of Underwriting Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
3.1
 
 
8-K
 
12/30/14
 
3.1
3.2
 
 
8-K
 
01/12/16
 
3.1
3.3
 
 
8-K
 
06/08/16
 
3.1
3.4
 
 
8-K
 
04/11/17
 
3.1
3.5
 
 
8-K
 
06/04/15
 
3.1
3.6
 
 
8-K
 
02/13/15
 
3.1
4.1
 
 
10-K
 
03/23/12
 
4.1
4.2
 
Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.3
 
Form of Certificate for Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.4
 
Form of Warrant Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.5
 
Form of Warrant Certificate
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
4.7
 
Form of Debt Security
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.8
 
Form of Unit Agreement
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
4.9
 
Form of Unit Certificate
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
23.2
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
24.1
 
 
 
 
 
 
X
25.1
 
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
 
 
 
 
 
(1)

(1)
If applicable, to be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.


II - 8
Exhibit

EXHIBIT 4.6


REMARK HOLDINGS, INC.,
Issuer


AND


[TRUSTEE],
Trustee


_________________


INDENTURE

Dated as of [—], 20__

_________________


Debt Securities







Table of Contents

 
 
Page
ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS
Section 1.01
Definition of Terms
ARTICLE 2
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
Section 2.01
Designation and Terms of Securities
Section 2.02
Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate
Section 2.03
Denominations: Provisions for Payment
Section 2.04
Execution and Authentications
Section 2.05
Registration of Transfer and Exchange
Section 2.06
Temporary Securities
Section 2.07
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities
Section 2.08
Cancellation
Section 2.09
Benefits of Indenture
Section 2.10
Authenticating Agent
Section 2.11
Global Securities
Section 2.12
CUSIP Numbers
ARTICLE 3
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
Section 3.01
Redemption
Section 3.02
Notice of Redemption
Section 3.03
Payment Upon Redemption
Section 3.04
Sinking Fund
Section 3.05
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities
Section 3.06
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund
ARTICLE 4
COVENANTS
Section 4.01
Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest
Section 4.02
Maintenance of Office or Agency
Section 4.03
Paying Agents
Section 4.04
Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee
ARTICLE 5
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
Section 5.01
Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

i



EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 5.02
Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders
Section 5.03
Reports by the Company
Section 5.04
Reports by the Trustee
ARTICLE 6
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
Section 6.01
Events of Default
Section 6.02
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee
Section 6.03
Application of Moneys Collected
Section 6.04
Limitation on Suits
Section 6.05
Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver
Section 6.06
Control by Securityholders
Section 6.07
Undertaking to Pay Costs
ARTICLE 7
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
Section 7.01
Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee
Section 7.02
Certain Rights of Trustee
Section 7.03
Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities
Section 7.04
May Hold Securities
Section 7.05
Moneys Held in Trust
Section 7.06
Compensation and Reimbursement
Section 7.07
Reliance on Officer’s Certificate
Section 7.08
Disqualification; Conflicting Interests
Section 7.09
Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility
Section 7.10
Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor
Section 7.11
Acceptance of Appointment By Successor
Section 7.12
Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

Section 7.13
Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company
Section 7.14
Notice of Default
ARTICLE 8
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
Section 8.01
Evidence of Action by Securityholders
Section 8.02
Proof of Execution by Securityholders
Section 8.03
Who May be Deemed Owners
Section 8.04
Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded

ii



EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 8.05
Actions Binding on Future Securityholders
ARTICLE 9
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
Section 9.01
Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders
Section 9.02
Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders
Section 9.03
Effect of Supplemental Indentures
Section 9.04
Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures
Section 9.05
Execution of Supplemental Indentures
ARTICLE 10
SUCCESSOR ENTITY
Section 10.01
Company May Consolidate, Etc
Section 10.02
Successor Entity Substituted
ARTICLE 11
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
Section 11.01
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture
Section 11.02
Discharge of Obligations
Section 11.03
Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust
Section 11.04
Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents
Section 11.05
Repayment to Company
ARTICLE 12
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
Section 12.01
No Recourse
ARTICLE 13
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 13.01
Effect on Successors and Assigns
Section 13.02
Actions by Successor
Section 13.03
Surrender of Company Powers
Section 13.04
Notices
Section 13.05
Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver
Section 13.06
Treatment of Securities as Debt
Section 13.07
Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent
Section 13.08
Payments on Business Days
Section 13.09
Conflict with Trust Indenture Act
Section 13.10
Counterparts
Section 13.11
Separability
Section 13.12
Compliance Certificates

iii



EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 13.13
U.S.A. Patriot Act
Section 13.14
Force Majeure
Section 13.15
Table of Contents; Headings

iv



EXHIBIT 4.6

INDENTURE
INDENTURE, dated as of [l], 20[l], among Remark Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [l], as trustee (the “Trustee”):
WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;
WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:
ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS
Section 1.01     Definitions of Terms.
The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933 (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provides or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.
Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.
Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.





EXHIBIT 4.6

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.
Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.
Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.
Company” means Remark Holdings, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.
Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [l].
Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.
Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.
Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.
Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.
Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.
Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations

2



EXHIBIT 4.6

of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.
Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.
Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.
Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.
Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.
Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the

3



EXHIBIT 4.6

payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.
Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.
Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.
Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture assigned by the Trustee to administer its corporate trust matters with respect to this Indenture (which, for the avoidance of doubt, includes without limitation any supplemental indenture hereto).
Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.
Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.
Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees

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EXHIBIT 4.6

thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.
Trustee” means [l], and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.
Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.
U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.
ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION
AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
Section 2.01     Designation and Terms of Securities.
(a)     The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:
(1)     the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);
(2)     any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);
(3)     the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;
(4)     the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;
(5)     the applicability of any guarantees;

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EXHIBIT 4.6

(6)     whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
(7)     whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;
(8)     if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
(9)     the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
(10)     the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
(11)     if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
(12)     the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;
(13)     the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;
(14)     any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;
(15)     whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;
(16)     if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so

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EXHIBIT 4.6

convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;
(17)     if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;
(18)     additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
(19)     additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;
(20)     additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
(21)     additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;
(22)     additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;
(23)     the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
(24)     whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
(25)     the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
(26)     any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and
(27)     any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.
If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.
Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.
Section 2.02     Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.
The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.
Section 2.03     Denominations: Provisions for Payment.
The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.
The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.
Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:
(1)     The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.
(2)     The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.
Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.
Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.
Section 2.04     Execution and Authentications.
The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.
The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.
A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.
Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.
The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.
Section 2.05     Registration of Transfer and Exchange.
(a)     Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum

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EXHIBIT 4.6

sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.
(b)     The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).
Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.
All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.
(c)     Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.
(d)     The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.
The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable

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EXHIBIT 4.6

law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.
Section 2.06     Temporary Securities.
Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.
Section 2.07     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.
In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.
Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.
Section 2.08     Cancellation.
All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
Section 2.09     Benefits of Indenture.
Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.
Section 2.10     Authenticating Agent.
So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the

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EXHIBIT 4.6

right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.
Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.
Section 2.11     Global Securities.
(a)     If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”
(b)     Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.
(c)     If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.
Section 2.12     CUSIP Numbers.
The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.
ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
Section 3.01     Redemption.
The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 3.02     Notice of Redemption.
(a)     In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.
Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.
In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.
(b)     If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer,

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instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.
Section 3.03     Payment Upon Redemption.
(a)     If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).
(b)     Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.
Section 3.04     Sinking Fund.
The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.
The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 3.05     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.
Section 3.06     Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.
ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS
Section 4.01     Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.
The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such

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Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.
Section 4.02     Maintenance of Office or Agency.
So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.
Section 4.03     Paying Agents.
(a)     If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:
(1)     that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;
(2)     that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;
(3)     that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and
(4)     that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

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(b)     If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.
(c)     Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.
Section 4.04     Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.
The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.
ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY
THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
Section 5.01     Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.
The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished;

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provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.
Section 5.02     Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.
(a)     The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).
(b)     The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.
(c)     Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.
Section 5.03     Reports by the Company.
(a)     The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.
(b)     Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure

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EXHIBIT 4.6

compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.
Section 5.04     Reports by the Trustee.
(a)     If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.
(b)     The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.
(c)     A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.
ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS
ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
Section 6.01     Events of Default.
(a)     Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:
(1)     the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
(2)     the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
(3)     the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with

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respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;
(4)     the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
(5)     a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.
(b)     In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.
(c)     At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and

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EXHIBIT 4.6

accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.
No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.
(d)     In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.
Section 6.02     Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
(a)     The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.
(b)     If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.
(c)     In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and

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EXHIBIT 4.6

documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.
(d)     All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.
In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.
Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.
Section 6.03     Application of Moneys Collected.
Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:
FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;
SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of

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EXHIBIT 4.6

which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and
THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.
Section 6.04     Limitation on Suits.
No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless: (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding; and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.
Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.
Section 6.05     Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
(a)     Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.
(b)     No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.
Section 6.06     Control by Securityholders.
The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.
Section 6.07     Undertaking to Pay Costs.
All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion

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EXHIBIT 4.6

assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.
ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
Section 7.01     Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.
(a)     The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.
(b)     No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:
(i)     prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:
(A)     the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and
(B)     in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to

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EXHIBIT 4.6

be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;
(ii)     the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;
(iii)     the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;
(iv)     none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;
(v)     The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;
(vi)     The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and
(vii)     No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.
Section 7.02     Certain Rights of Trustee.
Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:
(a)     The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;
(b)     Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);
(c)     The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization

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EXHIBIT 4.6

and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;
(d)     The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;
(e)     The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;
(f)     The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;
(g)     The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;
(h)     In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

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EXHIBIT 4.6

(i)     In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and
(j)     The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that (a) the party providing such written instructions, subsequent to such transmission of written instructions, shall provide the originally executed instructions or directions to the Trustee in a timely manner, and (b) such originally executed instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture.
(k)     The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder.
(l)     The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default relating to the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.
Section 7.03     Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.
(a)     The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.
(b)     The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

(c)     The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.
Section 7.04     May Hold Securities.
The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.
Section 7.05     Moneys Held in Trust.
Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.
Section 7.06     Compensation and Reimbursement.
(a)     The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.
(b)     The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.
(c)     The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

(d)     To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(a)(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.
Section 7.07     Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.
Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.
Section 7.08     Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.
If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.
Section 7.09     Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.
There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.
If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 7.10     Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.
(a)     The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.
(b)     In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:
(i)     the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or
(ii)     the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or
(iii)     the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;
then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.
(c)     The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such

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EXHIBIT 4.6

series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.
(d)     Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.
(e)     Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.
Section 7.11     Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.
(a)     In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.
(b)     In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties

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EXHIBIT 4.6

and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.
(c)     Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.
(d)     No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.
(e)     Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.
Section 7.12     Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.
Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.
Section 7.13     Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.
The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 7.14     Notice of Default.
If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.
ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
Section 8.01     Evidence of Action by Securityholders.
Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.
If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.
Section 8.02     Proof of Execution by Securityholders.
Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of

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EXHIBIT 4.6

the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:
(a)     The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.
(b)     The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.
The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.
Section 8.03     Who May be Deemed Owners.
Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.
Section 8.04     Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.
In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.
Section 8.05     Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.
At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate

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EXHIBIT 4.6

principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.
ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
Section 9.01     Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.
In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:
(a)     to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;
(b)     to comply with Article Ten;
(c)     to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;
(d)     to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;
(e)     to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

39



EXHIBIT 4.6

(f)     to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;
(g)     to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;
(h)     to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or
(i)     to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.
Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.
Section 9.02     Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.
With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.
It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

40



EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 9.03     Effect of Supplemental Indentures.
Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.
Section 9.04     Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.
Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.
Section 9.05     Execution of Supplemental Indentures.
Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.
Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to mail, or cause the mailing of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY
Section 10.01     Company May Consolidate, Etc.
Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors); provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction) or any such sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition (other than a sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition to a Subsidiary of the Company), the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.
Section 10.02     Successor Entity Substituted.
(a)     In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.
(b)     In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.
(c)     Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

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EXHIBIT 4.6

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
Section 11.01     Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.
Section 11.02     Discharge of Obligations.
If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.
Section 11.03     Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.
All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.
Section 11.04     Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.
In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.
Section 11.05     Repayment to Company.
Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on [l] of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.
ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS,
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
Section 12.01     No Recourse.
No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly

44



EXHIBIT 4.6

understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.
ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 13.01     Effect on Successors and Assigns.
All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.
Section 13.02     Actions by Successor.
Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.
Section 13.03     Surrender of Company Powers.
The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.
Section 13.04     Notices.
Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying or other agent under this Indenture or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: Remark Holdings, Inc., 3960 Howard Hughes Parkway, Suite 900, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169, Attention: Chief Financial

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Officer. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.
Section 13.05     Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.
This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.
Section 13.06     Treatment of Securities as Debt.
It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.
Section 13.07     Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.
(a)     Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.
(b)     Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12 or Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall include: (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 13.08     Payments on Business Days.
Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.
Section 13.09     Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.
If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.
Section 13.10     Counterparts.
This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.
Section 13.11     Separability.
In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.
Section 13.12     Compliance Certificates.
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

Section 13.13     U.S.A. Patriot Act.
The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.
Section 13.14     Force Majeure.
In no event shall the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions or utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.
Section 13.15     Table of Contents; Headings.
The table of contents and headings of the articles and sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not intended to be considered a part hereof, and will not modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

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EXHIBIT 4.6

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.
 
Remark Holdings, Inc.
 
 
 
By:
 
 
Name:
 
 
Title:
 


 
[l], as Trustee
 
 
 
By:
 
 
Name:
 
 
Title:
 


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EXHIBIT 4.6

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)
Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended
Section of Indenture
310(a)
7.09
310(b)
7.08
 
7.10
310(c)
Inapplicable
311(a)
7.13
311(b)
7.13
311(c)
Inapplicable
312(a)
5.01
 
5.02(a)
312(b)
5.02(c)
312(c)
5.02(c)
313(a)
5.04(a)
313(b)
5.04(b)
313(c)
5.04(a)
 
5.04(b)
313(d)
5.04(c)
314(a)
5.03
 
13.12
314(b)
Inapplicable
314(c)
13.07(a)
314(d)
Inapplicable
314(e)
13.07(b)
314(f)
Inapplicable
315(a)
7.01(a)
 
7.01(b)
315(b)
7.14
315(c)
7.01
315(d)
7.01(b)
315(e)
6.07
316(a)
6.06
 
8.04
316(b)
6.04
316(c)
8.01
317(a)
6.02
317(b)
4.03
318(a)
13.09
___________
(1)
This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

50

Exhibit

EXHIBIT 5.1

O L S H A N
1325 AVENUE OF THE AMERICAS n NEW YORK, NY 10019
TELEPHONE: 212.451.2300 n FACSIMILE: 212.451.2222


June 5, 2018

Remark Holdings, Inc.
3960 Howard Hughes Parkway, Suite 900
Las Vegas, Nevada 89169

Re:    Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We have acted as counsel to Remark Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the preparation of the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) filed by the Company today with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) relating to the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), of the offer and sale from time to time pursuant to Rule 415 promulgated under the Act, of up to an aggregate of $50,000,000 of securities of the Company consisting of (a) shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Common Stock”), (b) shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”), (c) debt securities (the “Debt Securities”), (d) warrants to purchase one or more of the Securities (as hereinafter defined) (the “Warrants”), and (e) units comprising one or more of the Securities or combinations thereof (the “Units”). The Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Warrants, Debt Securities and Units and any securities issuable upon the conversion, exchange or exercise of the Preferred Stock, Warrants or Debt Securities are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.”
We advise you that we have examined executed originals or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction of the following documents: (i) the Registration Statement; (ii) the prospectus forming a part of the Registration Statement; (iii) the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended to date (the “Certificate of Incorporation”); and (iv) the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws, as amended to date (the “Bylaws”, and together with the Certificate of Incorporation, the “Constituent Documents”). In addition, we have examined and relied upon such corporate records and other documents, instruments and certificates of officers and representatives of the Company and of public officials, and we have made such examination of law, as we have deemed necessary or appropriate for purposes of the opinion expressed below.
We have assumed for purposes of rendering the opinions set forth herein, without any verification by us, the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all natural persons to execute and deliver documents, the authenticity and completeness of documents submitted to us as originals and the completeness and conformity with authentic original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies, that all documents, books and records made available to us by the Company are accurate and complete.
For purposes of this opinion letter, we have also assumed that: (a) the Registration Statement and any amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments) shall have become and remain effective under the Act, no stop order with respect thereto shall have been issued, a prospectus supplement shall




have been prepared and filed with the Commission describing the Securities offered thereby and such Securities shall have been issued and sold in accordance with the terms set forth in such prospectus supplement; (b) any securities issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of any Securities being offered shall have been duly authorized by corporate action and, if appropriate, reserved for issuance upon such conversion, exercise or exchange; (c) at the time of any offering or sale of any shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Securities exercisable, convertible or exchangeable into Common Stock or Preferred Stock, there shall be a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, authorized and unissued under the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation as amended and then in effect and not otherwise reserved for issuance; (d) at the time of issuance of the Securities, the Company shall validly exist and shall be in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and shall have the necessary corporate power for such issuance; (e) any definitive purchase, at-the-market offering, underwriting or similar agreement with respect to any Securities, if applicable, and any applicable Indenture, Warrant Agreement or Unit Agreement (each as hereinafter defined) relating to Debt Securities, Warrants or Units, as the case may be, shall constitute legally valid and binding obligations of the parties thereto, enforceable against each of them in accordance with their respective terms, at the time of issuance of the applicable Securities; (f) certificates representing the shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as the case may be, or any Debt Securities, Warrants, or Units shall have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered, or if uncertificated, valid book-entry notations shall have been made in the share or other register of the Company, in each case in accordance with the Constituent Documents and in the manner contemplated by the Registration Statement and/or the applicable prospectus supplement, either (x) against payment therefor in an amount not less than the par value thereof, in the case of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, or such other consideration determined by the Board of Directors, or an authorized committee thereof, as permitted under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), in accordance with the provisions of any applicable definitive purchase agreement, at-the-market offering agreement, underwriting agreement, Indenture, Warrant Agreement, Unit Agreement or similar agreement, if any, approved by the Company or (y) upon conversion, exercise or exchange of any other Security in accordance with the terms of such Security or the instrument governing such Security as approved by the Company, for the consideration approved by the Company (in the case of Common Stock or Preferred Stock in an amount not less than the par value thereof, or such other consideration determined by the Board of Directors, or an authorized committee thereof, as permitted under the DGCL); and (g) the Constituent Documents shall be in full force and effect and shall not have been amended, restated, supplemented or otherwise altered, and there shall be no authorization of any such amendment, restatement, supplement or alteration, in each case since the date hereof, other than in connection with the Future Authorization and Issuance of Securities (as hereinafter defined).
For purposes of this opinion letter, we refer to the following as the “Future Authorization and Issuance” of Securities:
(a)
with respect to any of the Securities, (i) the authorization by the Company of the terms, offering and issuance of such Securities (the “Authorization”) and (ii) the issuance of such Securities in accordance with the Authorization therefor upon the receipt by the Company of the consideration to be paid therefor in accordance with the Authorization;

(b)
with respect to Preferred Stock, (i) the establishment of the terms of such Preferred Stock by the Company in conformity with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law and (ii) the proper execution, acknowledgement and filing with the Delaware Secretary of State, and the effectiveness of, a certificate of designations to the Certificate of




Incorporation setting forth the terms of such Preferred Stock in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law;

(c)
with respect to Debt Securities, (i) the due authorization, valid execution and delivery of an indenture or supplemental indenture (together, an “Indenture”) relating to the Debt Security by the Company and a trustee to be named therein (the “Trustee”), if any, or any necessary amendment or supplement thereto or other agreement in respect thereof, if any, (ii) the due qualification under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of any applicable Indenture, if required, and (iii) the establishment of the terms, due authorization, valid execution and delivery of the Debt Security in conformity with the applicable Indenture, if any, or other agreement in respect thereof, if any, and applicable law;

(d)
with respect to Warrants, (i) the due authorization, valid execution and delivery by the Company and the other parties thereto of any agreement under which the Warrants are to be issued (each, a “Warrant Agreement”) and (ii) the establishment of the terms of the Warrants, and the execution and delivery of the Warrants, in conformity with the Warrant Agreement and applicable law; and

(e)
with respect to Units, (i) the due authorization, valid execution and delivery by the Company and the other parties thereto of any agreement under which the Units are to be issued (each, a “Unit Agreement”) and (ii) the establishment of the terms of the Units, and the execution and delivery of the Units, in conformity with the Unit Agreement and applicable law.

Based upon the foregoing and subject to the qualifications, assumptions and limitations contained herein, we are of the opinion that:
1.With respect to the Common Stock, including those shares that are duly issued upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants or Units, upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of such shares of Common Stock, such shares of Common Stock will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

2.With respect to one or more series of the Preferred Stock, including those duly issued upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any Debt Securities, Warrants or Units, upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of such shares of Preferred Stock, such shares of Preferred Stock will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

3.With respect to the Debt Securities, including those duly issued upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any Preferred Stock, Warrants, Debt Securities or Units, upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of such Debt Securities, such Debt Securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

4.With respect to the Warrants, including those duly issued upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Units, upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of the Warrants, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.





5.With respect to Units, assuming that (a) any Debt Securities that form a part of such Units constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, as contemplated in opinion 3 above, (b) any Warrants that form a part of such Units constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, as contemplated in opinion 4 above, and (c) any shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock that form a part of such Units are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, as contemplated in opinions 1 and 2 above, respectively, upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of the Units, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

The opinions set forth above are subject to the following exceptions, limitations and qualifications:
We express no opinion as to: (a) the effect of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, fraudulent conveyance, moratorium or other similar laws now or hereafter in effect relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors; (b) the effect of general principles of equity, including without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing and the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief, regardless of whether enforcement is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law, and the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought; (c) the unenforceability under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of, or contribution to, a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to public policy; (d) the rights or remedies available to any party for violations or breaches of any provisions of the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, that are immaterial or the enforcement of which would be unreasonable under the then-existing circumstances, (e) the rights or remedies available to any party for material violations or breaches that are the proximate result of actions taken by any party to the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, other than the party against whom enforcement is sought, which actions such other party is not entitled to take pursuant to the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, or that otherwise violate applicable laws, (f) the rights or remedies available to any party that takes discretionary action that is arbitrary, unreasonable or capricious, or is not taken in good faith or in a commercially reasonable manner, whether or not the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, permit such action or (g) the effect of the exercise of judicial discretion, whether in a proceeding in equity or at law.
The aforesaid opinions as to enforceability of the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units also are subject to the qualification that certain provisions of the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, may not be enforceable, but (subject to the limitations set forth in clauses (a) through (g) of the immediately preceding paragraph) such unenforceability will not render the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units, as applicable, invalid as a whole or substantially interfere with realization of the principal benefits and/or security provided thereby.
We express no opinion (a) concerning the enforceability of any waiver of rights or defenses with respect to stay, extension or usury laws or (b) with respect to whether acceleration of Debt Securities may affect the collectibility of any portion of the stated principal amount thereof that might be determined to constitute unearned interest thereon.
This opinion is being furnished at the request of the Company and in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K promulgated under the Act in connection with the offer and resale of the Securities and is not to be used, quoted or otherwise referred to for any other purpose without our prior written consent. This opinion does not constitute such prior written consent.




We are members of the Bar of the State of New York. We express no opinion as to the effect of any laws other than the laws of the State of New York, the DGCL and the Federal laws of the United States of America, each as in effect on the date hereof.
This opinion speaks only at and as of its date and is based solely on the facts and circumstances known to us at and as of such date. We assume no obligation to revise or supplement this opinion to reflect any facts or circumstances that may hereafter come to our attention or any changes in fact or law that may hereafter occur.
We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference made to our firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the prospectus forming a part of the Registration Statement. In giving such consent, we do not thereby concede that our firm is within the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Very truly yours,
/s/ Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP
OLSHAN FROME WOLOSKY LLP



Exhibit

EXHIBIT 23.1

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3, of our report dated April 2, 2018, relating to the consolidated financial statements of Remark Holdings, Inc. (the “Company”), appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the years then ended, and to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the prospectus. Our report contains an emphasis of matter paragraph regarding the Company’s liquidity considerations.


/s/ Cherry Bekaert LLP

Atlanta, GA
June 5, 2018